Connectivity is crucial for all types of data networks. Data networks evolve over time as technology improves; it is often necessary to connect legacy copper-wired serial communications to modern TCP/IP communications through more advanced media such as optical fiber. Moreover, many different types of data formats, standards, media and connectors are often mixed and used together within a single data network.
Examples of different types of standards and protocols include physical-layer standards, such as RS-232, RS-485, RS-422, TTL, USB, and TCP/IP, and higher-level protocols, such as Profibus, Interbus, Modbus, BACnet, and Modbus TCP/IP. Copper wires and optical fibers are typical examples of different media; and there are dozens of different connectors used for machine-to-machine (M2M) connectivity and data communication systems, including DB9, DB25, USB type A, USB type B, mini USB, micro USB, terminal blocks, RJ11, RJ45, and ST, SC, FC, and LC connectors for fiber optic products.